1) What is the difference between "penetration" and "protection reduction"?
2) What are the "caps" for the following? Cooldown reduction. Flat penetration. Attack speed.
3) What kind of damage (magical or physical) do minions do? Towers? Phoenixes? The Titan?
4) From first to last, put these in order based on how the game calculates in determining end damage: flat penetration, % penetration, mitigation, flat protection red